TYPES OF HIKMAH (WISDOM)
Hikmah has two types:
Type 1: Intellectual and/or Theoretical Hikmah:
This implies gaining the knowledge and insight of inherent realities of things and becoming aware of the cause-effect relation with regard to creation and regulation.
Type 2: Practical Hikmah:
It is to put things in the correct place.
The reference to intellectual/theoretical hikmah is the knowledge and understanding, and the reference to practical hikmah is the actions based on justice and correctness. Hikmah is not void of these two meanings because the perfection of man lies in these two things i.e. to know and understand the realities and then act upon it. This is what known as ‘beneficial knowledge and righteous good deed.’
Allah has bestowed these two types of hikmah to all His messengers and to His pious servants whom He willed.
Allah said about Ibraheem (peace be on him) in Chapter 26, Verse 83, My Lord! grant me wisdom - this is theoretical hikmah and unite me to the righteous – this is practical hikmah.
He said about Musa (peace be on him) in Chapter 20, Verse 14 Verily! I, am Allah. None has the right to be worshipped but I - this is theoretical hikmah so, worship me – this is practical hikmah.
He said about Eesa (peace be on him) in Chapter 19, Verse 30 and 31 Verily, I am a slave of Allah, He has given me The Scripture and made me a prophet - this is the theoretical hikmah, and has enjoined on me salaat (prayer) and zakaath as long as I live - this is the practical hikmah.
He said about our prophet (peace be on him) in Chapter 47, Verse 19 so know (O Mohammed) that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah - this is the theoretical hikmah, and ask forgiveness for your sin – this is practical hikmah.
He said about all the messengers in general in Chapter 16, Verse 2 He sends down the angels, with the inspiration of His command, upon whom He wills of His servants, [telling them], "Warn that there is no deity except Me;”] - this is the theoretical hikmah and so keep your duty unto Me – this is practical hikmah].
STAGES OF PRACTICAL HIKMAH
Practical hikmah has three stages.
Stage I. To give every thing its due right without going beyond its limit and without hastening or delaying it.
Things do have their positions and rights that they demand, they have their limits and boundaries that should not be violated, and they have their times and it should not be done before or after their time. These three aspects of hikmah are to be taken into consideration by:
(A) Granting every thing its position and right which Allah has ordained. Violation of its rights means going against hikmah.
(B) Not hastening things before their time because hastening them is to go against hikmah.
(C) Not delaying things from their time so as not to lose them.
Stage II: Knowing the justice of Allah’s warnings, His truthfulness of His promises, and His fairness in His shariah (Islamic law) rules and His universal laws that binds His creations. Verily, there is no injustice or oppression in these laws.
Allah said in Chapter 4, Ayah 40 Verily! Allah is not unjust even to the least bit; and if there is a good deed, He will double it and will give from Him an immense reward. Allah is the most generous, and His treasures never decrease by His giving, and Allah places His mercy on the correct place, at correct time, and in correct measure according to His hikmah. When He bestows, it is due to His hikmah (Divine Wisdom), and and if He holds back, it is also due to His hikmah (Divine Wisdom).
Stage III: Baseerah (insight): It is the power of grasping, knowledge, intelligence, comprehension, and expertise.
Baseerah is the highest degree of knowledge which has its relationship with the heart parallel to the knowledge that has its relationship with the eyes (basar). The Sahaaba (companions of the prophet) and the sincere followers of the Messenger of Allah excelled in this characteristic called Baseerah.
Allah said in Chapter 12, Verse 108 Say, This is my way. I invite unto Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me (must also invite other to Allah) with sure knowledge. Indeed, Allah ordered His messenger to declare to the people that calling towards testifying that ‘there is none worthy of worship but Allah’ is his way, and he calls towards this way with insight, certainty, true knowledge, and evidences, and all those who follow the messenger of Allah also call towards what the Messenger of Allah has called to, with insight, certainty, and sure knowledge using logical and shariah evidences.
Baseerah in calling towards Allah entails three points.
- Daee should be well-versed in shariah laws pertaining to what he is calling towards because sometimes he might be calling towards a thing which he may think is obligatory when it will not be the case. Similarly, he might call towards shunning a thing which he may think is forbidden when actually it is not forbidden, and by doing this he might make lawful as unlawful and vice versa.
- Daee should be well-familiarized with the situation of the Mad’oo (the people who are called). It is important to know his religious, social, educational, ideological, psychological, and economic background so as to address him accordingly.
- Daee should have the insight in the methodology of Dawah. Allah has outlined different ways and means of Dawah in a number of verses, among them is the verse of Surah Yusuf which says Say, This is my way. I invite unto Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me (must also invite other to Allah) with sure knowledge. Indeed, this verse serves as a strong foundation in calling towards Allah. This foundation has three aspects i.e. Dawah with hikmah, beautiful preaching, and best argument. There is also a fourth aspect in calling towards Allah which is the use of harshness if need arises as Allah says in Chapter 29, Verse 46 And argue not with the people of the scripture unless it be in (a way) that is better except such of them who do wrong.
Undoubtedly, the methodology of the Quran is the best method in calling people towards Allah!!