What do we Muslims believe about Allah سبحانه و تعالى?
- He is the one God, Who has no partner.
- Nothing is like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a part of His creation.
- He is All-Powerful, absolutely Just.
- There is no other entity in the entire universe worthy of worship besides Him.
- He is First, Last, and Everlasting; He was when nothing was, and will be when nothing else remains.
- He is the All-Knowing, and All-Merciful, the Supreme, the Sovereign.
- It is only He Who is capable of granting life to anything.
- He sent His Messengers (peace be upon them all) to guide all of mankind.
- He sent Muhammad ﷺ as the last Prophet and Messenger for all mankind.
- Allah knows what is in our hearts.  
Oneness of ALLAH in his Being (ZAATH)
The Oneness of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, known as Tawhid or Tawheed, is the first and principal constituent of the Islamic concept, as it is the fundamental truth of the Islamic faith. It is also one of the chief characteristics of the Islamic concept because, among all the belief systems and philosophies currently prevailing among human beings, only the Islamic faith can be characterized as having a pure form of monotheism with clarity of faith.
Allah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Qur’an.SurahBaqarah 2:255
And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.Qur’an.SurahBaqarah 2:163
Allah سبحانه و تعالى - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of existence. Qur’an.Surah Ale Imran 3:2
Worship Allah سبحانه و تعالى; you have no deity other than Him. Qur’an.Surah Araf 7:59, 65 and 85.
Indeed, I am Allah سبحانه و تعالى. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance. Qur’an.Surah Ta Ha 20:14
Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah سبحانه و تعالى, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe. Qur’an.Surah Anbiya 21:22
"There is no deity except Me, so worship Me." Qur’an.Surah Anbiya 21:25
Say, "He is Allah سبحانه و تعالى, [who is] One. Qur’an.Surah Ikhlas 112:1
Allah سبحانه و تعالى is the Creator of all things Qur’an.Surah Zumar 39:62
Such is Allah سبحانه و تعالى, your Sustainer. There is no god but He, the Creator of everything. Worship, then, Him alone, for He has everything in His care. Qur’an.Surah An 'am 6: 102.
Allah سبحانه و تعالى has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any deity. [If there had been], then each deity would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah سبحانه و تعالى above what they describe [concerning Him]. Qur’an.Surah Muminun 23:91
He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in dominion and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination. Qur’an.Surah Furqan 25:2.
To Allah سبحانه و تعالى belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. Qur’an.Surah Ma'idah 5: 17.
He is Allah سبحانه و تعالى, other than whom there is no deity Qur’an.Surah Hashr 59:23
O mankind, remember the favor of Allah سبحانه و تعالى upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah سبحانه و تعالى who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no deity except Him, so how are you deluded? Qur’an.Surah Fatir 35:3
And how many a creature carries not its [own] provision. Allah سبحانه و تعالى provides for it and for you. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing. Qur’an.Surah Ankabut 29:60
Say, [O Muhammad ﷺ], "I am only a warner, and there is not any deity except Allah سبحانه و تعالى, the One, the Prevailing.Qur’an.Surah Sad 38:65
NO PROPHET HAS EVER INVITED PEOPLE TO WORSHIP HIM OTHER THAN ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى Qur’an.Surah Ale Imran3:79
Say, "Have you considered: if Allah سبحانه و تعالى should take away your hearing and your sight and set a seal upon your hearts, which deity other than Allah سبحانه و تعالى could bring them [back] to you?" Look how we diversify the verses; then they [still] turn away. Qur’an.Surah Anam 6:46
And to Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and earth. All are to Him devoutly obedient. Qur’an.Surah Rum 30:26
And to Allah سبحانه و تعالى prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth of creatures, and the angels [as well], and they are not arrogant. Qur’an.Surah Nahl 16:49
They have taken their scholars and monks as lords besides Allah سبحانه و تعالى, and [also] the Messiah, the son of Mary. And they were not commanded except to worship one God; there is no deity except Him. Qur’an.Surah Tawbah 9:31 
Oneness of Allah سبحانه و تعالى in His actions
Allah سبحانه و تعالى says in the first ayath(or statement) of Qur’an that Allah سبحانه و تعالى is the Rabb of the worlds. And the Arabic word “Rabb” means Creator, Owner and the One, Who rectifies and nurtures them by sending His Messengers, and revealing His Books, and rewarding them for their righteous deeds. Al- Ibn ul-Qayyim (rahimahullah) said, 'Verily, Rububiyah includes commanding the slaves and prohibiting them, and rewarding the good doers with good and reprimand (the evil doers) with punishment.' Madarijus-Salikeen (1/8)
Few references from Qur’an
It is to single out Allah سبحانه و تعالى in His Actions and believe that He Alone is the Creator of all the creation. 'Allah سبحانه و تعالى created all things.' Qur’an.Surah az-Zumar 39: 62
He is the Provider of all animals, humans and everything else, 'And no (moving) living creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah سبحانه و تعالى.' Qur’an.Surah Hud 11: 6
He is the King of the dominion and the administrator of all affairs; He changes the night into day, gives life and death. You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will, without limit.' Qur’an.Surah A’le -Imran 3: 26-27
Allah سبحانه و تعالى has negated any partner or assistant in His dominion, just like He negated any partner in Creation and Provision. Allah سبحانه و تعالى says, 'This is the creation of Allah سبحانه و تعالى. So show Me that which those (whom you worship), besides Him have created.' Qur’an.Surah Luqman 31: 11
Providing Provision to His creation. Who is he that can provide for you if He should withhold His provision?' Qur’an.Surah Mulk 67: 21 
Allah سبحانه و تعالى has created all His creation with a natural instinct (i.e. Fitra) that affirms His Rububiyah - including the Mushrikeen (polytheists), who (even though they) ascribed partners with Him in worship, declared His Sovereignty in Rububiyah, as He said, 'Say, 'Who is (the) Lord of the seven heavens, and (the) Lord of the Great Throne?' They will say, 'Allah سبحانه و تعالى,' say, 'Will you not then fear Allah سبحانه و تعالى. Say, 'In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. treasures of each and everything)? And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector, if you know. They will say, '(All that belongs) to Allah سبحانه و تعالى.' Say, 'How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?' Qur’an.Surah -Muminun23:86-89
In Qur’an.Surah 27:60-64, Allah سبحانه و تعالى said, He alone:
- Created the heavens and the earth
- Sent down for you rain from the sky
- Who made the earth a stable ground and placed within it rivers
- Firmly set mountains and placed between the two seas a barrier
- Who responds to the desperate one when he calls upon Him
- Who guides you through the darknesses of the land and sea
- Who sends the winds as good tidings before His mercy
- Who provides for you from the heaven and earth
- Who alone knows the unseen 
Oneness of Allah in His names
Allah is unique in His names. The names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى are not limited to any specific number. We know some of them and do not know others, as is indicated by the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood (رضي الله عنهم), who said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺsaid: ‘There is no one among you who, when he is stricken with distress and grief, says, O Allah, I am Your slave…..I ask You by every name belonging to You which You named Yourself with, or You taught to any of Your creation, or revealed in Your Book, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the Unseen with You.. Musnad Ahmad, 3582;
The names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى are all husnaa [Most Beautiful], as He says: “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah سبحانه و تعالى, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belief or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” Qur’an.Surah A’raaf 7:180
The name Allah سبحانه و تعالى refers to the One Who is adored and worshipped, the One Who possesses the attributes of divinity and to whom all His creation is enslaved. The attributes of divinity with which He describes Himself are the attributes of perfection. 
Few names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى are:
- Al-Rahman (the Most Gracious),
- al-Raheem (the Most Merciful),
- Al-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks).
- Al-Samee’ (the All-Hearing). He hears all voices, in all the different languages, no matter how many and how varied, when they call on Him for their needs.
- al-Kareem (the Most Generous),
- al-Jawaad (the Generous),
- al-Ra’oof (the Compassionate),
- al-Wahhaab (the Bestower),
- Al-‘Aleem (the All-Knowing),
- Al-Hakeem (the Wise)
For more Names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, refer to NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH
ONENESS OF ALLAH IN HIS ATTRIBUTES
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى is the true owner & sovereign of everything in universe, Qur’an.Surah Hashr 59:23
To Him belongs that before us and that behind us and what is in between. And never is your Lord forgetful. Qur’an.Surah Maryam 19:64
ONLY ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى is the director of affairs & regulats order inthe universe Qur’an.Surah Rad 13:2
“Say: ‘Do ye then take (for worship) protectors other than Him, such as have no power either for good or for harm to themselves?” Qur’an.Surah Rad 13:16
His command is only when He intends a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is. Qur’an.Surah Ya seen 36:82
And you do not will except that Allah سبحانه و تعالى wills. Indeed, Allah سبحانه و تعالى is ever Knowing and Wise.Qur’an.Surah Insan 76:30
Only ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى has the power to declare things as lawful on unlawul...because he himself is the maker of law ..Qur’an.Surah Tahreem 66:1
Only ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى has the knowldege of the unseen Qur’an.Surah Araf 7:188
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى alone knows the secrets of hearts Qur’an.Surah Mulk 67:13 14; Qur’an.Surah Hadeed 57:4
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى alone provides/withdraws/enlarges/restricts sustenance Qur’an.Surah Isra 17:31, Qur’an.SurahSaba 34:36
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى alone bestows progeny (sons and daughters) ... Qur’an.Surah Ash Shura 42: 49 50
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى alone who guides, feeds, cures diseases and bestows health, who gives life and death, forgive sins Qur’an.Surah Shuara 26: 78-82
Allah سبحانه و تعالى alone provides provision and success Qur’an.Surah Hud 11:88
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى alone can grant profit or loss...and he alone is the master of destiny Qur’an.Surah Fath 48:11
ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى alone has the control over life and death Qur’an.Surah Ghafir40:68 
Worship (Ibaadat) is for Allah alone
Meaning of Ibaadah
- Ibn Katheer defines worship, or ibaadah, as: a state which combines the perfection of love, submission, and fear. A comprehensive term, encompassing all apparent and hidden acts and statements that are beloved to Allahسبحانه و تعالى.'
In other words, Ibaadah can be defined as a state, and it can be also defined by the actions. Anything that Allahسبحانه و تعالى commands us to do and he is pleased that we do it is an act of worship.
- Two conditions of Ibadaah
permissible unless proven other wise
- Even natural acts can be converted into religious acts, under one condition: sincerity (consciousness) doing this for the sake of Allahسبحانه و تعالى.
- No shirk in natural acts.
impermissible unless proven other wise
- impure intentions aren't accepted
- It has to be in accordance of the sunnah
- Prophet Muhammad ﷺsaid: Whoever innovates into the religious part in from something we haven't done, it shall be rejected of him. Sahih Al Bhukari Vol 3:861
The greatest of all sins is to commit shirk with Allahسبحانه و تعالى , and to feel safe from the punishment of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, and to give up hope of the mercy of Allah سبحانه و تعالى and to despair of Allah’s سبحانه و تعالى aide. 
Few references from Qur’an
It is You (ALLAH سبحانه و تعالى) we worship and You we ask for help. Qur’an.Surah Fatiha 1:4
So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone. Qur’an.Surah 18:110
And your Lord says, "Call upon Me; I will respond to you." Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible. Qur’an.Surah 40:60
And [He revealed] that the masjids are for Allah سبحانه و تعالى, so do not invoke with Allahسبحانه و تعالى anyone. Qur’an.Surah 72:18
And whoever invokes besides Allahسبحانه و تعالى another deity for which he has no proof - then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed. Qur’an.Surah 23:117
And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me - indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. Qur’an.Surah 2:186
And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me - indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. Qur’an.Surah 27:62 
Evidence that only Allah is the Creator of life
Do they not look into the realm of the heavens and the earth and everything that Allahسبحانه و تعالى has created and [think] that perhaps their appointed time has come near? So in what statement hereafter will they believe? Qur’an.Surah Araf 7:185
Then is He who creates like one who does not create? So will you not be reminded? Qur’an.Surah Nahl 16:17
O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah سبحانه و تعالى will never create [as much as] a fly, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the fly should steal away from them a [tiny] thing, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued.Qur’an.SurahHajj 22:73
But they have taken besides Him gods which create nothing, while they are created, and possess not for themselves any harm or benefit and possess not [power to cause] death or life or resurrection.Qur’an.SurahFurqan 25:3
[He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed Qur’an.Surah 67:2
Imam al-Bukhari reported in his Saheeh from Abu Sa‘eed (رضي الله عنهم) that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: "There is no created being but Allah سبحانه و تعالى created it." In Arabic, the word "khalaqa" means to make out of nothing, which is something that only Allah سبحانه و تعالى can do; it is impossible for anyone except Allah سبحانه و تعالى to do this. It also carries the meaning of decreeing or foreordaining. Fath al-Bari Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhari, 13/390 
Where is Allah?
Allah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book(Qur’an), and by the tongue of His Messenger (ﷺ) as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur'aan is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allah.
Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allah without distorting their meaning, and that Allah is above His seven heavens, above His 'Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.
Indeed, your Lord is Allah سبحانه و تعالى, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above (Istawa) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).Qur’an.Surah Yunus 10:3.
The Most Gracious (Allah) rose over (Istawa) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). Qur’an.Surah Taha 20:5.
"And when Allah سبحانه و تعالى said: 'O Jesus! I will take you and raise you to Myself'." Quran.Surah A’le Imran 3:55.
The Angels ascend up to Him. Qur’an.Surah Maarij 70:4.
Every good saying goes up to him. Quran.Surah Fatir 35:10.
The revelation brought down from your Lord. Qur’an.Surah Nahl 16:102.
Lord is above them who fear. Qur’an.Surah Nahl 16:50.
And there are many more proofs from Qur’an which makes it clear that Allah سبحانه و تعالى is above His creation.
"Nothing ascends to Allah سبحانه و تعالى except good." Sahih Al Bukhari vol 9:525; Sahih Al Muslim 1320. “.
Allah سبحانه و تعالى wrote a book which is above the throne with him...” Sahih Al Bukhari vol 9:518.
Zaynab رضي الله عنه: says “Allah سبحانه و تعالى from above the seven heavens gave her away in Marriage” Sahih Al Bukhari vol 9 : 517.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As رضي الله عنه: The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: The Compassionate One has mercy on those who are merciful. If you show mercy to those who are on the earth, He Who is in the heaven will show mercy to you. Abu Dawud 4941 and Tirmidhi 1924
Narrated Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه: When the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ has sent Muadh رضي الله عنه to Yemen, he said to him, "You are going to a nation from the people of the Scripture, so let the first thing to which you will invite them, be the Tawheed of Allah. If they learn that, tell them that Allah سبحانه و تعالى has enjoined on them, five prayers to be offered in one day and one night. And if they pray, tell them that Allah سبحانه و تعالى has enjoined on them Zakat of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor. And if they agree to that, then take from them Zakat but avoid the best property of the people." Sahih Al Bhukari Vol 9: 469
Narrated Mu'adh bin Jabal رضي الله عنه: The Prophet Muhammad ﷺsaid, "O Mu'adh! Do you know what Allah's Right upon His slaves is?" I said, "Allah سبحانه و تعالى and His Apostle know best." The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, "To worship Him (Allah) Alone and to join none in worship with Him (Allah). Do you know what their right upon Him is?" I replied, "Allah سبحانه و تعالى and His Apostle know best." The Prophet Muhammad ﷺsaid, "Not to punish them (if they do so)." Sahih Al Bhukari Vol 9: 470  
Mercy of Allah
Allah سبحانه و تعالى is the most merciful. He does not want us to enter hell fire. So Allah سبحانه و تعالى extends His mercy so much that He multiplies our deeds several times and forgives us countless times.
Indeed, Allah سبحانه و تعالى does not do injustice, [even] as much as an atom's weight; while if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Him a great reward. Qur’an.Surah Nisa 4: 40
Whoever comes [on the Day of Judgment] with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof [to his credit], and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof; and they will not be wronged. Qur’an.Surah Anam 6: 160
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas رضيالله عنه that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ transmitted it from the Blessed and Great Lord: “Verily Allah سبحانه و تعالى recorded the good and the evil and then made it clear that he who intended good but did not do it, Allah سبحانه و تعالى recorded one complete good in his favour, but if he intended it and also did it, the Glorious and Great Allah سبحانه و تعالى recorded ten to seven hundred virtues and even more to his credit. But it he intended evil, but did not commit it, Allah سبحانه و تعالى wrote down full one good in his favour. If he intended that and also committed it, Allah سبحانه و تعالى made an entry of one evil against him.” Sahih Muslim 237
From the Quranic Ayath above and the hadith we can understand that Allah سبحانه و تعالى wants to bless people with their small good deeds:
- If a person does a single good deed, the reward is multiplied 10 to 700 times and even more (Allah alone knows the upper limit).
- If a person intends to do a good deed but does not do it, he still gets 1 reward.
- If a person intends to do an evil deed but does not do it, 1 reward is recorded although he initially intended to do evil.
- If a person does 1 evil deed, only 1 entry of evil deed is recorded for him.
Why would Allah سبحانه و تعالى go out of His way to multiply good deeds, record good deeds when you have not done it, record good deeds when you had intended evil and record just 1 evil deed for every evil action? There can be no other reason except that Allah سبحانه و تعالى is most merciful and does not want us to go to Hell.
You will realize how incorrect it is to estimate Allah سبحانه و تعالى like a mathematics teacher or a business man. One can appreciate that Allah's mercy has no boundaries. Alhamdulillah!
“They have not appraised Allah سبحانه و تعالى with true appraisal.Indeed, Allahسبحانه و تعالى is Powerful and Exalted in Might.” Qur’an.Surah Hajj 22: 74 
- << Prev