The moral system in Islam is vast, but it is well detailed in the texts of the Glorious Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Good manners in Islam occupy a prominent place and major importance. Good manners in Islam represent the essence and spirit of the message of Islam.
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) says:
“I was sent to perfect the noble qualities of character.” (Ahmad)
Allah (Glory be to Him) says about the manner of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
And indeed, you are of a great moral character. (Al-Qalam 68:4)
What are Good Ethics?
Ethics in Islam cover many aspects; keeping the promise is an original Islamic value, honesty in speech and telling the truth are also Islamic values. Returning a deposit to its owner is also a beautiful behavior. Good advice for everyone also has been regarded as a good behavior. Preferring others over yourself is also a good behavior. All those ethical values were exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions in their true sense.
Dealing with Good Manners: A Sort of worship
We find a lot of Muslims who did not learn Islam and its moral system differentiate between worship and ethical acts and good behavior. When people see a person attending or praying the five daily prayers, they think he is a good person and a devoted servant of Allah the Almighty. When you see a person absorbed in reciting the Glorious Qur’an or remembrance of Allah in a lonely place, you think he is a good person and a devoted servant of Allah the Almighty. And this is true, but the matter is the same when you see a person who deals with people with truth and kindness according to the ethical standard of Allah and His Messenger. When a person decorates himself with the manners and morals of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and follows the footsteps of the esteemed companions is also a true worshipper of Allah the Almighty and a perfect devotee of Him.
Therefore, you are required to worship Allah the Almighty with both types of worship, with the prayer, almsgiving, fasting and pilgrimage, alongside the moral actions, good behavior, honesty in speech, avoidance of backbiting and gossip, keeping away from the theft, deception and lying, etc.
A Muslim as a Mirror of Good Manners
It is noteworthy, dear brother, when you behave badly with your non-Muslim friends or cheat any of them, you represent Islam to them in a bad way and people think that Islam tells you to do so and they become haters of Islam because of your behavior. Thus, you deserve two punishments; one for your bad manner, and another for alienating people from Islam and its excellent message, as you kept them away from studying Islam by your bad representation of the Islamic message.
Likewise, when you treat people with a good manner you deserve two rewards; one for your good ethic and another for your good representation of Islam. Thus, you have represented the Islamic message in a positive way, and encouraged people to study Islam, a great religion that has such beautiful and sublime principles. So, respected brother and sister, be always careful about your manner, and be eager to implement the Islamic ethical manners in a perfect way, especially, when you deal with non-Muslims.
Good Manners:An Important Factor and Key Element in the Spread of Islam
Islam spread across the most parts of the world since the first moment of its advent through the good morals and fine behaviors of its preachers and lovers. This is because the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) taught his companions fine ethics, good morals, honesty and sincerity in every case. When those companions traveled to the different parts of the world carried with them the ligth of faith and guidance to every part of the world.
Therefore, dear brothers, every one of you is an ambassador of the Islamic message in your surrounding area, or any country a Muslim travels to.
In fact, the Indian sub-continent was invaded by the morals of the Muslim traders to India. The people of India were attracted to Islam by the sublime and tolerant Islamic beliefs before anything else. The Islamic ethics system is not a purely theoretical system; rather, it is a practical and applied system. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the first generation of Muslim nation were mirrors and practical examples of the Islamic moral values.
Manner of the Prophet with aBedouin: A Role Mode
Our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) showed kindness and mercy even to those who made some serious mistakes. When he dealt with them with wisdom and good manner, they embraced Islam for being influenced by his sublime manner.
Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “Whilst we were in the Mosque with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), a Bedouin came and stood urinating in the Mosque. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, ‘Stop it! Stop it!’ and were about to attack him. But the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, ‘Do not interrupt him; leave him alone.’ So they left him until he had finished urinating, then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) called him and said to him, ‘In these Mosques it is not right to do anything like urinating or defecating; they are only for remembering Allah, praying and reading the Qur’an,’ or words to that effect. Then he commanded a man who was there to bring a bucket of water and throw it over the (urine), and he did so.” (Al-Bukhari)
How sublime was his manner! How lofty was his behavior! How merciful was his nature!
The Essence of Basic Worships in Islam
The basic acts of worship in Islam, such as praying, fasting, Hajj, Zakah are in their essences a practical training on good manners and good ethics. Allah the Almighty says about the prayer:
And establish prayer. Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing. (Al-`Ankabut 26:45)
This blessed verse says that the prayer is intended to keep you away from vice and evil acts.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) says about fasting:
“Whosoever does not leave bad words and bad actions, Allah does not care if he leaves his food and drink.” (Ahmad)
Fasting is not just about avoiding food and drink. Fasting is to learn how to avoid bad words and bad deeds. In fact, the fasting improves your moral consciousness and ethical awareness.
As for the Hajj (pilgrimage), Allah the Almighty says:
So whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of ihram], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj… (Al-Baqarah 2:197)
It is clear from the verse that a pilgrim should avoid harsh language, quarreling with the people and disobedience of Allah the Almighty and other immoral acts.
Allah (Glory be to Him) says:
Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase. (At-Tawbah 9:103)
This verse indicates that charity and almsgiving purify you from avarice, greed and cruelty to the poor and the helpless and many other vices and psychological diseases and defects. Thus, charity raises the moral and ethical awareness in a practical way and the giver enjoys blessings and happiness in this world and the Hereafter.
Good Manners: Part of Faith
It has become clear that the manifestations of the basic acts of worship in Islam have educational aspect and ethical dimension. And this reveals the importance of ethics in Islam, and not only that, but good manners are a part of the faith itself; if you are perfect in morality, you are perfect in the faith but if you are imperfect in ethics you are imperfect in your faith.
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) says: “The most perfect of the believers in faith is the one who is best in attitude.” (At-Tirmidhi).
Difference between the System of Ethics in Islam and Hinduism
Here the question is: what is unique in the system of ethics in Islam? The question is objective, this is true, but we say every religion in the world has moral dimensions, however, if we want to know the details of ethics and its practical application in a preserved method without any addition or subtraction, we cannot find that in any religion. For example, if we want to take Krishna, the holy figure to Hindus, we lose the way to the truth. The myths make him a sort of fiction and novel instead of a real person. Also the chain of narration is broken and dark, and the biographies of those religious leaders are unknown, and the details are unavailable, and the system of morals is incomplete and distorted.
On the contrary, we find the system of ethics in Islam well-preserved, sound and complete; nothing of it is missing. Every aspect of the life of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is written and detailed. Even if you want to know about his manner with his wives, the mothers of the believers, you can read them as fresh as they were written freshly and recently. If you want to verify you can refer to the Encyclopedia of Hadiths; such as Sahih Al-Bukhar and Muslim, etc. and take a quick look at the chapters and sub-chapters of them, you will verify what I said.
The system of ethics in Hinduism intends to maintain the greatness of Brahmins over other classes of people, and preserve their interests all the time. Any injustice by a Brahmin to outcasts is justified, if a Brahmin rapes untouchable woman there is nothing immoral in this act. You can read the evidences and proofs in our article “Hindu Caste System and Islam”
In Hinduism, what is appropriate is determined by the context in which the action is to be performed and who is performing it. Different people have different dharmas; one’s caste, one’s position in life (ashrama), one’s gender, all determine what is dharmic in a particular instance. The ethical and moral guidelines for a Kshatriya are different from those for a Brahmin, which are in turn different from those for a Shudra. This is sometimes called “svadharma,” or one’s own, personal dharma. The specifics of these guidelines are discussed in great detail in the Dharmashastras and their commentaries.(1)
The above-mentioned quotes clearly show that the moral value in Hinduism is not absolute but is relative, and not permanent or unchanging, but changeable depending on castes, circumstances and conditions. On the contrary, the moral value in Islam, is an absolute not relative, a constant not changeable or temporary. And this is a serious philosophical defect in the Hindu value system, how can you regard the act of theft as an immoral act for a specific individual and a moral act for another individual? This is an intellectual contradiction rejected by the mind, logic and wisdom.
Moreover, the system of moral values in Islam is a revelation from God who created mankind and others, and He knows His creation better than anyone else. However, the system of moral values in Hindu is a creation and innovation of some ancient Hindu ascetics and spiritual leaders. And it is a verified reality that human may make mistakes and may make the right decision.
One of the Hindu writers says:
“You must obey the laws or rules of conduct. The rules are given for you by the law-givers for your own betterment and spiritual uplift. The law-givers are great sages who had direct God-realisation.”
The moral life in Hinduism is seen as the union of the Atman with the Brahman. Hence, the virtuous man in Hinduism is a man who has recognized his true self (Atman) by breaking the barriers of what is illusionary (Maya).(2)
However, the system of ethics in Islam is not limited to the divine side or just fulfilling the ritual obligation, but Islamic morality includes all aspects of life such as man, universe and life. In Islam, a person cannot be perfect in his faith, unless he loves for his brother what he loves for himself, and every animal or bird that eats from your grain is a charity for you.
One of the critics of Hinduism says about the Hindu philosophy of ethics: “One of the things that trouble me about Hinduism is the lack of ethical discussion. Even the Bhagavad Gītā says little more than “do your duty”. Defining duty then seems to be left to custom.”(3)
“Hindu ethics is mainly subjective or personal and the objective ethics are based upon duty, related to a man’s position in the society.”(4)
Also the Hindu ethics system neglected the untouchables though they were originally the aborigines, with a very low mental development, who ate unclean food, lived by hunting, and were uncouth in appearance, manner, and conduct.” This was and is a result of defect in the ethical system.
Moreover, ahimsa or non-violence is a famous Hindu principle of ethical value, which has an international reputation, but when we try to examine this principle through a practical way we find a lot of contradiction. Is it logical to prevent the slaughter of animals? But at the same time, it allows the worst kinds of oppression on human beings, as the following report says.
“In 2007 the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination quoted Indian government statistics to show there had been over 100,000 cases of violence, murder, or rape of untouchables in 2005.”(5)
People like Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, Hegel and Karl Marx viewed man from various angles. In their search for understanding human nature, some concentrated on the body and its form and shape. So they came to certain conclusions which were body-centered. Some viewed man from the occupation he once followed, and thought of him as an animal subjected for evolution. The thought of some other thinkers fell on human belly and they related everything with it. They found it most important and decided that hunger was the cause of all problems. They thought that once this problem is solved, everything would be alright. Those who viewed man and life through sexuality believed it to be the most important thing and whatever they knew, saw and heard was related to it. They declared that the whole human activity is sex centered and if the restrictions imposed on sex were removed everything would be all right. Some others gave undue importance to spirituality and disregarded the body and its needs. So the people who tried to understand man in the absence of divine revelations were like the proverbial blind men, who tried to understand the elephant in their own partial ways. They arrived at certain conclusions which were imperfect and full of errors.
Those who do not know man cannot understand how man should live. Every individual must possess the basic awareness to understand how he should live in this world. This awareness is achieved only through the divine message. It was religion that taught man about the meaning, objective and destiny of his existence.
The manufacturer knows best about the product he manufactures. To give an example, vehicles work best with the oil, spare parts etc recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. Even if it is a simple thing like air pressure of the wheels, we follow what the manufacturer says. One might ask why? It is our vehicle. We own it and we use it. Why not use it the way we want? Why not change the air pressure of the wheel depending on our mood that day?
We would not try changing it based on our whims and fancies, because we trust that the vehicle maker knows what is best for the vehicle.We trust the manufacturer of the products even for trivial things, how is it rational to make decisions about our lives without looking for guidance and instructions from our creator, God Almighty?
If I may call human beings a machine, we are the most complex machine on earth dueto our emotions and thoughts. Our creator, God, knows exactly what is good for us and has prescribed a way of life which was taught to us by the Messengers of God and the scriptures revealed by Him. Going away from the guidance of God, would lead to chaos and destruction.
Since Islam was revealed from our creator,God Almighty, it is a complete way of life and therefore addresses all the aspects of human life.
Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam.
O you who have believed, enter into Islam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.
And whoever desires other than Islam as their way of life – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.
Say, This is my way. I invite unto Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me (must also invite other to Allah) with sure knowledge. Chapter 12, Verse 108
Invite to the way of your Lord i.e. Islam with wisdom, and beautiful preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Chapter 16, Verse 125.
And argue not with the People of the Scripture unless it be in (a way) that is better. Chapter 29, Verse 46.
Dawah to Allah with Sure Knowledge and Certainty to be achieved through:
Importance of the topic and the reasons for its selection
Allah has described different ways of giving Dawah, and the foremost way mentioned is wisdom in the ayah Invite to the way of your Lord i.e. Islam with wisdom, and beautiful preachings, and argue with them in a way that is better Chapter 16, verse 125.
By the study of the seerah (life history) of Messenger of Allah, we come to know that the prophet upheld the wisdom in all matters generally and more so in Dawah. This resulted in people entering Islam in large numbers by the mercy of Allah who filled the Prophet’s heart with Imaan (faith) and Hikmah (wisdom). Abu Darr (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that that the messenger of Allah said, the roof of my house was opened when I was in Makkah. Gabriel descended, opened my chest, and washed it with Zamzam, then brought a golden utensil full of wisdom and imaan, and he poured it into my chest.(Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim). All these show the greatness and importance of Hikmah in Dawah. Allah says in Chapter 2, Verse 269 and he unto whom wisdom is given, truly he has received good in abundance. The sahaaba (may Allah be pleased with them) followed the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah in giving dawah with wisdom, and this resulted in the spread of Islam far and wide during their time. People entered into the fold of Islam in large numbers, the actual number which only Allah knows. After the companions of the Prophet, came the Tabi’oon (Muslims who studied under the Sahaaba), who also followed the same way of giving Dawah with wisdom. The first three generations who are called as the Salafus Saalih (Righteous predecessors) continued to move in this direction of giving Dawah with Hikmah and Allah made Islam and its people triumphant and made shirk humiliated.
There are some people who think that wisdom is restricted to just being soft-spoken, forgiving, loving, being kind, tolerating, and so forth. These are all the deficient meanings of the hikmah.
Hikmah means to employ softness and politeness, toleration and forgiveness, and explanation of the truth with knowledge, practice, and belief on the basis of proofs and evidences.
Sometimes Hikmah means to employ beautiful preaching, exhorting towards the truth and warning against the falsehood. This way is suitable for all those who have the ability to accept the truth and acknowledge it, but are in falsehood out of ignorance and/or pursuit of their whims and fancies.
Sometimes Hikmah involves arguing and debating in a way that is better, with exemplary moral characters, soft speech, and by providing authentic evidences and logic and refuting the falsehood in a suitable and reasonable manner. The intention behind this should be to clarify the truth and lead the people towards the true path seeking their Hidayah (guidance), not to gain any victory or fame by applying this method. This way is to be utilized for all those who show staunch enmity and hatred.
Wisdom enables the Daee (caller) to correctly and appropriately estimate the things and he does not call the people towards abstinence and severance from the world when the people are in need of defense for their creed and their towns. He does not impart the principles and regulations of business transactions to the people when they are in dire need of knowing the rules of wudu and salaah.
Wisdom/hikmah makes a Daee to ponder over and consider the situation, the nature, attitude and manners of Mad’oo (the people who are called).
Daee does not overburden the Mad’oo and does not place obligations upon them unless making their hearts prepared to undertake them.
He uses different styles and approaches and attracts them according to their suitability. He calls to Allah with knowledge as opposed to ignorance.
He addresses the things that are more important and sets the priorities right.
He teaches them what they require using words and phrases which are easily understood by them and addresses them according to their comprehension level.
He fulfills their necessities as the situation demands.
By these ways, he enters the heart of the people through the widest of the doors and their hearts are opened towards him, and they see him as full of concern for their goodness and wellbeing. These can be accomplished through calling towards Allah with Hikmah, which is the only way for success in Dawah.
It is imperative that all the sayings, actions, thoughts, and planning should be full of wisdom and in accordance with correctness. Hikmah makes the Daee do things at their appropriate times and leads him in making efforts to know what benefits him and befits him. It makes him take an easier route to reach the goal.
MEANING OF THE WORD HIKMAH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS
MEANING OF THE WORD HIKMAH
Hikmah has a few linguistic meanings. Among those are:
It is used as an allusion for justice, knowledge, tolerance, Prophethood, Al-Quran, and Al-Injeel. Root Meaning: ‘Ahkama al amra’, meaning making something perfect.
Hikmah is defined as knowing the best things through best knowledge. The man who makes sophisticated and delicate things perfect is called as ‘hakeem’.
Al-Hakeem: The person who makes things perfect. It is said of the man who is perfect “Qad ahkamathu-tajaarib” meaning “experience had made the man perfect”
Hikmah also means reaching the truth with the help of knowledge and reasoning.
Al-Hakeem also means the one who prevents corruption. That is why rein or bridle is named ‘hakamatul lijaam’ because the rein prevents the horse from running and going in wrong direction and being refractory. Hikmah is derived from this meaning of ‘hakamah” which prevents a person from immorality.
Al-Hukmu means to prevent from oppression.
The most prominent element we see in the meanings of ‘Hikmah’ and its implications is ‘prevention/prohibition’. Hence the word hikmah is used in several meanings which consist in them the element of ‘prevention’
Therefore, the word justice prevents oppression, tolerance prevents anger, and knowledge prevents ignorance. It is the same case with the word Prophethood, because the Prophets prevent the people from worshipping others besides Allah and prevent them from falling into sins. The Quran, the Injeel and all other religious scriptures are meant to prevent people from falling into shirk and sins.
DEFINITION OF HIKMAH AS PER THE SHARIA TERMINOLOGY
The scholars have mentioned the meaning of hikmah mentioned in the Quran and hadeeth -- the word himkah has appeared in the Quran in 19 places -- and the scholars have different sayings about it. Some said, Hikmah means Prophethood, some said it means Quran and its understanding with regard to its abrogation, it’s clear and allegorical verses, former and latter, halal and haram and so forth. Some said, it means correctness of speech and action. Some said, seeking the truth and following it. Some said, it is the beneficial knowledge and good deeds (ilm un-naafi and amalussaalih), yet some said, it is the fear of Allah while others said it means Sunnah and some are of the opinion that it is knowledge and acting upon it. A person is not named as ‘hakeem’ unless he combines both the knowledge and actions. It is also said that hikmah means to place the things in their proper place. Some said it is giving the right answer swiftly.
There are 29 sayings about the definition of hikmah, but all of those are close to each other in their meanings of hikmah because the word hikmah is derived from ‘ihkaam’ which means perfection i.e. perfection in speech and action. Therefore, the Book of Allah is hikmah, the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah is hikmah and whatever elaborated on the Quran and Sunnah is hikmah. The essence of hikmah is that it prevents from stupidity and imprudence. Sometimes knowledge is referred to as hikmah because it prevents from silliness and thoughtlessness.
If we ponder over the word hikmah, we find that it encompasses all the meanings and implications given by the scholars in its definition i.e. the correctness in speech and action and placing everything in its appropriate place.
There are two types of Hikmah mentioned in the Quran. One is called as ‘mufrada’, which means solitary i.e. the word hikmah occurring as a single word. The other one is “maqroonatun bilkitab’ i.e. the word hikmah occurring in combination with The Book.
Examples of the word hikmah occurring as a single word are found in verses like Invite to the way of your Lord i.e. Islam with wisdom, and beautiful preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better.” (Chapter 16, Verse 125) and and he unto whom wisdom is given, truly he has received good in abundance (Chapter 2, Verse 269) and And verily We gave Luqman wisdom, saying: Give thanks unto Allah; and whosoever giveth thanks, he giveth thanks for (the good of) his soul. And whosoever refuseth Lo! Allah is Absolute, Owner of Praise” (Chapter 31, Verse 12). This kind of hikmah we found in abundance in the Quran which fits all the definitions of hikmah given by the scholars mentioned above.
The hikmah that comes in conjunction with al-Kitab i.e. The Book, it means ‘Sunnah,’ consisting of Messenger of Allah’s sayings, actions, approvals, and his seerah as we see in the following verses:
Chapter 2, Verse 129 Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Book and in wisdom (hikmah) and shall make them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty,Wise.
Chapter 2, Verse 321 and remember Allah''s grace upon you and that which He hath revealed unto you of the Book and of wisdom (hikmah), whereby He doth exhort you. Observe your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Aware of all things.
Chapter 3, Verse 164 Allah verily hath shown grace to the believers by sending unto them a messenger of their own who reciteth unto them His revelations, and causeth them to grow, and teacheth them the Book and wisdom (hikmah); although before (he came to them ) they were in flagrant error.
Chapter 62, Verse 2 He it is Who hath sent among the unlettered ones a messenger of their own, to recite unto them His revelations and to make them grow, and to teach them the Book and Wisdom, though heretofore they were indeed in error manifest.
Among the scholars who interpreted the meaning of hikmah that comes along with The Book as Sunnah are Imam Shafi and Imam Ibn-Qayyim.
THE RELATION BETWEEN THE LITERAL AND TERMINOLOGICAL DEFINITIONS
If we contemplate, we see that there is a deep connection between the literal and shariah terminologic meaning. They both include the beneficial knowledge, good and perfect deeds which are the essence of the principles of hikmah. So, the comprehensive definition is The correctness of sayings, deeds, and aqeedah with placing the things in their appropriate places perfectly and efficiently. Allah knows best.
By this definition, it becomes crystal-clear that hikmah in dawah is not restricted to soft speech, persuasion, tolerance, leniency, overlooking, etc. rather it is perfection and efficiency of affairs by handling the things appropriately in their relevant perspectives like debating when it is appropriate to debate in a best way, to be strict and harsh when required. This is what hikmah is in reality!
Whoever wants the practical evidence in this matter let him see it in the way of the Messenger of Allah and his behavior towards different kinds of people. He is the one whom Allah has bestowed him with wisdom to the degree which He has not given to anybody else!!
The fruit of raising daughters righteously is reward in this life before reward in the Hereafter; this is proved by the fact that Allah rewarded the righteous man who raised his two daughters virtuously. A daughter is a great bounty and an honour granted by Allah. Girls are a source of reward and sons are a blessing; rewards are in one's favour (on the Day of Judgment) whereas one will be held accountable for blessings.”
Allah Almighty says (what means): “To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; He creates what He wills. He gives to whom He wills female [children], and He gives to whom He wills males. Or He makes them [both] males and females, and He renders whom He wills barren. Indeed, He is Knowing and Competent.” Quran Shuraa 42:49, 50 Allah is the One, based on His ultimate wisdom, who grants whomever He wills sons and daughters; He grants sons only to whomever He wills, and grants daughters only to whomever He wills, and if He so wills, He makes whomever He wills infertile.
We notice in the above ayath that the mention of daughters preceded that of sons, and the scholars commented on this saying: “This is to hearten daughters and encourage kindness towards them, because many fathers feel burdened by receiving a daughter. The common practice of the people during the pre-Islamic era was to hate receiving daughters, to the extent that they would bury them alive; therefore, it is as if Allah is saying to people: `This inferior child in your estimation takes precedence in My scale.' He also mentions daughters first to indicate their weakness, and that they are therefore more deserving of care and attention.”
Such honouring of daughters is the complete opposite of how people were accustomed to dealing with females in the pre-Islamic era, when they would degrade women and consider them a part of their wealth, and if news of a baby girl would come to any of them, it would be as if he was hit by a thunderstorm; Allah says (what means): which means: “And when one of them is informed of [the birth of] a female, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief. He hides himself from the people because of the ill of which he has been informed. Should he keep it in humiliation or bury it in the ground? Unquestionably, evil is what they decide.” Quran Surah Mujadilah 58:59
During the era of Ignorance
It is said that some enemies of Qays ibn ‘Aasim At-Tameemi, who was a pre-Islamic Arab, attacked his premises and captured his daughter. Later, one of these enemies married her. After some time, the clan of Qays and that of his enemies reconciled, so they gave this daughter of his the freedom to go back to her father or remain with her husband, and she preferred to stay with her husband. At that point, Qays took a pledge upon himself to bury alive any new daughter that he would receive, and the Arabs imitated him after that. It was, therefore, this man who introduced this evil practice, and thus he will shoulder his own sin as well as the sin of all those who did it thereafter.
One of the companions who had killed his daughter in the era that preceded Islam narrated his story: "We would worship idols in the pre-Islamic era and kill our daughters. I had a daughter, who, when she was old enough to comprehend and talk, would rejoice whenever she saw me and would immediately respond. One day, I called her and told her to follow me, so she did, until we reached a well that belonged to my tribe. I then took her by her hand and threw her in the well, and the last thing I heard her cry was: ‘O father! O father!'" (Ad-Daarimi)
“Those who have disbelieved and died in disbelief, the earth full of gold would not be accepted from any of them if one offered it as a ransom. They will have a painful punishment, and they will have no helpers.” (Quran 3:91)
So, this life is our only chance to win Paradise and to escape from Hellfire, because if someone dies in disbelief, he will not have another chance to come back to this world to believe. As God has said in the Quran about what is going to happen for the unbelievers on the Day of Judgment:
“If you could but see when they are set before the Fire (Hell) and say, “Would that we might return (to the world)! Then we would not reject the verses of our Lord, but we would be of the believers!” (Quran 6:27)
But no one will have this second opportunity.
The Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said: “The happiest man in the world of those doomed to the Fire (Hell) on the Day of Judgment will be dipped in the Fire once. Then he will be asked, ‘Son of Adam, did you ever see any good? Did you ever experience any blessing?’ So he will say, ‘No, by God, O Lord!’”